Saturday, 29 October 2011


List of Adjectives

The list of adjectives is something of wonder. Behold the modest adjective. It can leap tall buildings in a single bound. It makes the average citizen smarter and kinder. It keeps you in the cleanest car on the block. Such potent words should be used wisely. Read on and learn how to use your adjective powers for good.
An adjective's job is to modify a noun or pronoun. They are always near the noun or pronoun they are describing. Be careful how you use adjectives such as interesting, beautiful, great, wonderful, or exciting. Many adjectives like these are overused and add little definition to a sentence. Instead, show your reader or listener what you are talking about by using verbs and nouns creatively. Sprinkle fewer well-chosen adjectives for interest.

Adjectives are often used to describe the degree of modification.
The adjective forms are positive, comparative, and superlative.
This tree is tall. (positive)
That tree is taller. (comparative)
The last tree in the row is the tallest. (superlative)
A handful of adjectives have irregular forms of positive, comparative, and superlative usage.
These include good/better/best, bad/worse/worst, little/less/least, much-many-some/more/most, far/further/furthest.

My lunch was good, hers was better, and yours was the best.

Proper adjectives are derived from proper nouns. They commonly describe something in terms of nationality, religious affiliation, or culture. Like proper nouns, proper adjectives have their first letter capitalized.

Friday, 28 October 2011

Present Continuous Tense

I am singing

How do we make the Present Continuous Tense?

The structure of the present continuous tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
    be   base + ing
Look at these examples:
  subject auxiliary verb   main verb  
+ I am   speaking to you.
+ You are   reading this.
- She is not staying in London.
- We are not playing football.
? Is he   watching TV?
? Are they   waiting for John?

How do we use the Present Continuous Tense?

We use the present continuous tense to talk about:
  • action happening now
  • action in the future

Present continuous tense for action happening now

a) for action happening exactly now
I am eating my lunch.
past present future

The action is happening now.  
Look at these examples. Right now you are looking at this screen and at the same time...
...the pages are turning. ...the candle is burning. ...the numbers are spinning.
b) for action happening around now
The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before and just after now, and it is not permanent or habitual.
John is going out with Mary.
past present future


  The action is happening around now.  
Look at these examples:
  • Muriel is learning to drive.
  • I am living with my sister until I find an apartment.

Present continuous tense for the future

We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future - if we add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. "Future words" include, for example, tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas etc. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking.
I am taking my exam next month.
past present future

  A firm plan or programme exists now. The action is in the future.
Look at these examples:
  • We're eating in a restaurant tonight. We've already booked the table..
  • They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They're not working.
  • When are you starting your new job?
In these examples, we have a firm plan or programme before speaking. The decision and plan were made before speaking.

How do we spell the Present Continuous Tense?

We make the present continuous tense by adding -ing to the base verb. Normally it's simple - we just add -ing. But sometimes we have to change the word a little. Perhaps we double the last letter, or we drop a letter. Here are the rules to help you know how to spell the present continuous tense.
Basic rule Just add -ing to the base verb:
work > working
play > playing
assist > assisting
see > seeing
be > being
Exception 1 If the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant, double the last letter:
s t o p
  consonant stressed
(vowels = a, e, i, o, u)
stop > stopping
run > running
begin > beginning
Note that this exception does not apply when the last syllable of the base verb is not stressed:
open > opening
Exception 2 If the base verb ends in ie, change the ie to y:
lie > lying
die > dying
Exception 3 If the base verb ends in vowel + consonant + e, omit the e:
come > coming
mistake > mistaking

Thursday, 27 October 2011

Simple Present Tense

I sing

How do we make the Simple Present Tense?

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
    do   base
There are three important exceptions:
  1. For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.
  2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.
  3. For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.
Look at these examples with the main verb like:
  subject auxiliary verb   main verb  
+ I, you, we, they
  like coffee.
He, she, it
  likes coffee.
- I, you, we, they do not like coffee.
He, she, it does not like coffee.
? Do I, you, we, they   like coffee?
Does he, she, it   like coffee?
Look at these examples with the main verb be. Notice that there is no auxiliary:
  subject main verb    
+ I am   French.
You, we, they are   French.
He, she, it is   French.
- I am not old.
You, we, they are not old.
He, she, it is not old.
? Am I   late?
Are you, we, they   late?
Is he, she, it   late?

How do we use the Simple Present Tense?

We use the simple present tense when:
  • the action is general
  • the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
  • the action is not only happening now
  • the statement is always true
John drives a taxi.
past present future

It is John's job to drive a taxi. He does it every day. Past, present and future.
Look at these examples:
  • I live in New York.
  • The Moon goes round the Earth.
  • John drives a taxi.
  • He does not drive a bus.
  • We meet every Thursday.
  • We do not work at night.
  • Do you play football?
Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the simple present tense for situations that are not general. We can use the simple present tense to talk about now. Look at these examples of the verb "to be" in the simple present tense - some of them are general, some of them are now:
Am I right?
Tara is not at home.
You are happy.
past present future

The situation is now.
I am not fat.
Why are you so beautiful?
Ram is tall.
past present future

The situation is general. Past, present and future.

Tongue Twister Poems

One Smart Fellow, He Felt Smart.
Two Smart Fellows, They Felt Smart.
Three Smart Fellows, And They All Felt Smart.
A flea and a fly in a flue
Said the fly "Oh what should we do"
Said the flea" Let us fly
Said the fly "Let us flee"
So they flew through a flaw in the flue
A tree toad loved a she-toad
Who lived up in a tree.
He was a two-toed tree toad
But a three-toed toad was she.
The two-toed tree toad tried to win
The three-toed she-toad's heart,
For the two-toed tree toad loved the ground
That the three-toed tree toad trod.
But the two-toed tree toad tried in vain.
He couldn't please her whim.
From her tree toad bower
With her three-toed power
The she-toad vetoed him.
Betty Boughter bought some butter
But she said the butter's bitter
If I put it in my batter
It will make my batter bitter
But a bit of better butter will make it better than the bitter butter
So she bought a bit of better butter
And put it in her batter
And her batter was not bitter
So t'was Betty Boughter bought a bit if better butter and put it in her
batter and her batter was not bitter.
I thought a thought.
But the thought I thought wasn't the thought I thought I thought.
If the thought I thought I thought had been the thought I thought, I wouldn't have thought so much.
If you understand, say "understand".
If you don't understand, say "don't understand".
But if you understand and say "don't understand".
How do I understand that you understand? Understand!
Mr. See owned a saw.
Mr. Soar owned a seesaw.
Now, See's saw sawed Soar's seesaw before Soar saw See, which made Soar sore.
Had Soar seen See's saw before See sawed Soar's seesaw, See's saw would not have sawed Soar's seesaw.
So See's saw sawed Soar's seesaw.
But it was sad to see Soar so sore just because See's saw sawed Soar's seesaw.
Once a fellow met a fellow
In a field of beans.
Said a fellow to a fellow,
"If a fellow asks a fellow,
Can a fellow tell a fellow
What a fellow means?"
You've no need to light a night-light
On a light night like tonight,
For a night-light's light's a slight light,
And tonight's a night that's light.
When a night's light, like tonight's light,
It is really not quite right
To light night-lights with their slight lights
On a light night like tonight.